The word “chess” in translation from ancient Persian means “king died”. Regularly archeologists find evidence that they played by the same rules in America, India, Japan and China. One of the main advantages of this game is the development of intellectual abilities. Knowing several rules and principles, you can quickly learn to play chess.
On the chessboard there are 64 fields (8 cells horizontally and vertically), one half of which are white squares and the other half are black. Besides, there are several basic zones and planes on it:
white and black diagonals;
the center (consisting of four fields);
a large center (16 fields).
During the game the chessboard should be placed so that the white field is in the lower right corner. White is always in position A1.
Position of the pieces
Location of figures
The second row is exclusively pawns. In the first row the figures are arranged as follows: two rooks are placed on the sides, followed by horses on both sides, then two elephants (officers). There are only two free fields left to be occupied by the queen and the king. The rule here is that the queen is placed on a cell corresponding to his color. The beginning of the game must be preceded by a check: both queens must stand against each other.
Peculiarities of the attacks
Features of attacks
The Rook walks and attacks only vertically or horizontally. The Bishop moves on two diagonals on which it is located. Two bishops of the same player do not intersect in the game.
The Queen is the strongest piece. He moves in all directions: horizontally, vertically, on white and black diagonals. The king also walks in all cells, but his attack zone is limited to nine fields, i.e. he moves and attacks only one step in each direction. The knight walks with a letter D and can jump over both his own pieces and those of his opponent.
There is a fork position where the knight has a choice in attacking either of the two pieces. The pawns walk on only one field, they cannot move backwards. But at the beginning of the game each of them has the opportunity to take two steps at a time. All pieces, except for the pawn, walk and hit on the same trajectory. A pawn moves straight and attacks only diagonally. She can’t walk backwards.
An unusual pawn move…
Chess players have the concept of “taking pawns in the aisle.” In this case, a black pawn is on the field of G6, and a white pawn is on H7, that is, from the beginning of the game has not made any moves. It can jump the field of H6, which is under attack. Here, the person playing black has the right to go to the previously attacked field, taking behind a standing pawn to H5. However, this is not always necessary.
The debut is the very first stage of the game. You need to enter it well, while performing the main tasks:
Properly place the pieces so that they get into combat positions by the middle of the game;
ensure the King’s safety as he’s quite vulnerable at the start of the game;
avoid the queen’s hasty moves;
to give priority to moving horses over elephants;
to join heavy pieces;
to counteract the opponent’s plans.
One of the most important principles without which you cannot learn to play chess is control over the center of the board. Any piece, being here, controls the largest number of fields. Ferz, staying in this zone, keeps almost half of the board under control and can put pressure in case of enemy pieces. It is also important to enter pawns into this area.
The second principle is the development of figures, not soldiers. The latter move only to open lines. For example, the meaning of the debut of E4 is to open paths for the elephant and queen, in addition to controlling the center. In addition, a typical mistake is to move the same piece twice unless there is a good reason for doing so. Of course, there are always exceptions, but this is the basic rule. If you ignore it, then in the future the player will face unpleasant threats from his opponent.
The third principle is the inclusion of the queen too early and his active movement. This is due to the fact that the enemy can use this behavior to develop his figures. Even if comfortable conditions for taking enemy pieces are created, first of all it is necessary to follow basic rules and control the center of the board.
Heavy pieces are two rooks and a queen. When they interact with each other they carry out a strong joint game, and being on the same line, they provide mutual protection.
In order to implement these principles, the player will meet resistance from the opponent. At the same time, it is necessary to observe and predict for yourself what ideas the opponent wants to implement, and to oppose them in every way.
Attack and defend
An exchange is a mutual attack where both players take one piece from another. The concept of value is also used here, where the equivalent exchange is the mutual loss of the same pieces. In addition, there are its following types:
a pawn equals a pawn;
an elephant equals a horse;
horse or elephant = three pawns;
rook = elephant and two pawns;
queen = two rooks.
The king is priceless, so he cannot be exchanged. There is also the concept of light and heavy figures. The first includes a knight and an elephant, the second includes a queen and a rook. Usually at the beginning of the game they try to introduce all the light pieces into the game.
How prep for gre tournaments?
Check is a situation where the king is attacked by one or more enemy pieces. A checkmate is the same, except that the king has no way to retreat.
The strategy is called the principle of chess game management, which covers the preparation and implementation of an evolving plan for the position of an opponent. Its main principles are:
position analysis and evaluation;
preparation of the further game plan;
constant calculation of options.
In addition, there are other elements of chess strategy. These include:
the creation of “good” pieces for yourself and “bad” pieces for your opponent;
capturing open or semi-open lines and key fields;
creating maximum difficulty for your opponent;
taking possession of space (especially in the centre);
harmonious arrangement of pawns and weakening them at the opponent’s side.
During each game you should remember these principles and develop the game only in accordance with them. This is the foundation of any victory.
Quick way to win
Attack and defend
If you play thoughtlessly from the first moves, you can lose the game very quickly. There is a so-called stupid mat, with which you can finish the game in record time. It can be produced if the game is played with an inexperienced opponent who started from scratch. Online gre course in chess.
The essence of this mat is the following: the opponent at the beginning of the game went on pawn to F3, and then the other – to G4. As a result, the diagonal on the king is opened and he can put the queen’s mat on H4 (previously opened paths). However, there is no point in hoping for such a coincidence, as it can happen in rare cases. Any more or less professional player will not make such gross mistakes.
There is a better chance to give a person a “baby mat”. His idea is the weakness of two pawns at the beginning of the game. They are in positions F7 and F2 for each of the players. The first move is from the king (E4) to open a passage for the queen and elephant. The opponent will make a standard move on E5 in most cases. There will be two attack options: the queen from H5 to F7 pawn or vertically from F3.
It is recommended to attack the first way, because the second move creates a double threat. The weakest move that the opponent can make in this position is to be like E7. As a result, you can put a queen mate by moving it to E5.
The secrets of the game.
During the offensive, the player must enter new pieces into the attack to “squeeze” the king. At the beginning, the best and most popular moves for White are E4 and D4. After such debuts you get open positions. Such a start is especially recommended for beginners who have a rating below 2000. Strong first graders and candidates for master of sports can start from positions D4, C4 or knight – F3. These are the so-called closed positions, which are more difficult to play.
When the first opposite horizontal is reached, the pawn can turn into any shape except the king. The border on the fourth and fifth horizontal is called the demarcation line, which divides the players’ flanks. Correspondingly, the following must always be remembered: if a piece is placed behind this line it can be hit and attacked by the opponent at any moment. When crossing this line, you must carefully look at potential threats.
The danger occurs when players move to D4, D5 and C4. If White was the first to move, they lose a pawn on C4. It is a mistake of many newcomers to play on the flank. Such moves as a pawn on H4 and a rook on H3 are a rough strategic mistake, as it makes no sense to walk like that at the beginning of the game.
The benefits of chess
Quick way to win
There are several main arguments in favour of chess development. The game develops logic, memory, spatial thinking, volitional traits of character, as well as improves cognitive functions of the person. In addition, it shapes the child’s assiduity. Many scientific studies have confirmed that children who play systematically improve their overall performance in school.
Outstanding Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget noted in his work the formation of children 6-12 years old skills to perform actions in the mind. In other words, they begin to scroll through all kinds of situations and their outcomes in their minds. At this age, the intellectual potential of the child is formed, so it is very important not to miss this moment. Accordingly, you should teach them a chess game. Prep for gre tournaments online.
A frequent mistake of adults in teaching children is to arrange the pieces on the board independently, where from the starting positions they begin to explain how an elephant, queen, etc. walks. However, it will be correct to show each piece individually on an empty board so that children better understand the peculiarities of their movement in space and move them independently. It will be difficult, but it will allow them to remember everything.
It is recommended to start training from the rook. If the child is quite mature, then it can be explained to him that it moves vertically and horizontally. A little chess player can be told in simple terms: forward, back, left and right.
Chess involves both hemispheres of the brain. During the game a person visually perceives the board, remembers past mistakes, studied openings and positions. At this time the right hemisphere is working. When the strategy is calculated and the moves are analyzed, the left hemisphere is used. The game teaches a person to analyze, because during it a lot of information is calculated. Strong chess players are able to solve complex problems. In addition, chess is an excellent prevention of Alzheimer’s disease.